Spring Boot之Spring Boot Actuator监控和管理生产环境

spring-boot-actuator模块提供了一个监控和管理生产环境的模块,可以使用http、jmx、ssh、telnet等拉管理和监控应用。审计(Auditing)、健康(health)、数据采集(metrics gathering)会自动加入到应用里面。

springboot

首先,写一个最基本的spring boot项目。基于Maven的项目添加‘starter’依赖

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<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
</dependency>

启动信息里面可以看到这样一些日志

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2017-9-20 09:57:40.953  INFO 4064 --- [           main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping     : Mapped "{[/trace],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()
2017-9-20 09:57:40.954 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/mappings],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()
2017-9-20 09:57:40.955 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/env/{name:.*}],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EnvironmentMvcEndpoint.value(java.lang.String)
2017-9-20 09:57:40.956 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/env],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()
2017-9-20 09:57:40.957 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/configprops],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()
2017-9-20 09:57:40.958 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/info],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()
2017-9-20 09:57:40.958 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/dump],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()
2017-9-20 09:57:40.959 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/health],methods=[],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.HealthMvcEndpoint.invoke(java.security.Principal)
2017-9-20 09:57:40.961 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/autoconfig],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()
2017-9-20 09:57:40.962 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/metrics/{name:.*}],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.MetricsMvcEndpoint.value(java.lang.String)
2017-9-20 09:57:40.963 INFO 4064 --- [ main] o.s.b.a.e.mvc.EndpointHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/metrics],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}" onto public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()

具体的描述:

ID 描述 敏感(Sensitive)
autoconfig 显示一个auto-configuration的报告,该报告展示所有auto-configuration候选者及它们被应用或未被应用的原因 true
beans 显示一个应用中所有Spring Beans的完整列表 true
configprops 显示一个所有@ConfigurationProperties的整理列表 true
dump 执行一个线程转储 true
env 暴露来自Spring ConfigurableEnvironment的属性 true
health 展示应用的健康信息(当使用一个未认证连接访问时显示一个简单的’status’,使用认证连接访问则显示全部信息详情) false
info 显示任意的应用信息 false
metrics 展示当前应用的’指标’信息 true
mappings 显示一个所有@RequestMapping路径的整理列表 true
shutdown 允许应用以优雅的方式关闭(默认情况下不启用) true
trace 显示trace信息(默认为最新的一些HTTP请求) true

health

比如:http://localhost:7231/health
你可以得到结果

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{
status: "UP",
}

在应用配置加上

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endpoints.health.sensitive=false

在次访问http://localhost:7231/health

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{
status: "UP",
diskSpace: {
status: "UP",
free: 32516145152,
threshold: 10485760
},
db: {
status: "UP",
database: "Microsoft SQL Server",
hello: 1440729256277
}
}

可以检查的其他一些情况的健康信息。下面的HealthIndicators会被Spring Boot自动配置(在合适的时候):

名称 描述
DiskSpaceHealthIndicator 低磁盘空间检测
DataSourceHealthIndicator 检查是否能从DataSource获取连接
MongoHealthIndicator 检查一个Mongo数据库是否可用(up)
RabbitHealthIndicator 检查一个Rabbit服务器是否可用(up)
RedisHealthIndicator 检查一个Redis服务器是否可用(up)
SolrHealthIndicator 检查一个Solr服务器是否可用(up)

自定义当然也可以,你可以注册实现了HealthIndicator接口的Spring beans,Health响应需要包含一个status和可选的用于展示的详情。

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import org.springframework.boot.actuate.health.HealthIndicator;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class MyHealth implements HealthIndicator {

@Override
public Health health() {
int errorCode = check(); // perform some specific health check
if (errorCode != 0) {
return Health.down().withDetail("Error Code", errorCode).build();
}
return Health.up().build();
}
}

trace

访问http://localhost:7231/trace可以看到结果,默认为最新的一些HTTP请求

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[
{
timestamp: 1440728799269,
info: {
method: "GET",
path: "/health",
headers: {
request: {
host: "localhost:7231",
connection: "keep-alive",
accept: "text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8",
user-agent: "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/38.0.2125.122 Safari/537.36",
accept-encoding: "gzip,deflate,sdch",
accept-language: "zh-CN,zh;q=0.8,en;q=0.6",
ra-ver: "3.0.7",
ra-sid: "74E754D8-20141117-085628-93e7a4-1dd60b"
},
response: {
X-Application-Context: "executecount:integration:7231",
Content-Type: "application/json;charset=UTF-8",
Transfer-Encoding: "chunked",
Content-Encoding: "gzip",
Vary: "Accept-Encoding",
Date: "Fri, 28 Aug 2015 02:26:39 GMT",
status: "200"
}
}
}
}
]

看看 InMemoryTraceRepository,默认是100个事件,如果需要可以定义自己的 InMemoryTraceRepository 实例。如果需要,你可以创建自己的替代 TraceRepository 实现。

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/**
* In-memory implementation of {@link TraceRepository}.
*
* @author Dave Syer
* @author Olivier Bourgain
*/
public class InMemoryTraceRepository implements TraceRepository {

private int capacity = 100;

private boolean reverse = true;
}

如果需要追踪其他的事件,你可以将一个TraceRepository注入到你的Spring Beans中。

info

当执行 http://localhost:7231/info 的时候,结果什么没有
但是,单加入加入一些配置

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info.app.name=ecs
info.app.version=1.0.0

info.build.artifactId=@project.artifactId@
info.build.version=@project.version@

执行/info

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{
app: {
version: "1.0.0",
name: "ecs"
},
build: {
artifactId: "execute-count-server",
version: "0.0.3"
}
}

/info 是用来在构建的时候,自动扩展属性的。对于Maven项目,可以通过 @..@ 占位符引用Maven的’project properties’。

env

通过/env可以访问环境信息

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{
profiles: [
"integration"
],
servletContextInitParams: { },
systemProperties: {
java.runtime.name: "Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment",
java.vm.version: "25.25-b02",
java.vm.vendor: "Oracle Corporation",
java.vendor.url: "http://java.oracle.com/",
path.separator: ";",
idea.launcher.port: "7532",
java.vm.name: "Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM",
file.encoding.pkg: "sun.io",
user.country: "CN",
user.script: "",
sun.java.launcher: "SUN_STANDARD",
sun.os.patch.level: "Service Pack 1",
PID: "7416",
java.vm.specification.name: "Java Virtual Machine Specification",

...
}
}

通过/env/{name:.*}可以访问特定的环境属性

比如:

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http://localhost:7231/env/java.vm.name
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM

metrics

/metrics显示了应用当前的指标信息

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{
mem: 348672,
mem.free: 264831,
processors: 4,
instance.uptime: 1859584,
uptime: 1870818,
systemload.average: -1,
heap.committed: 348672,
heap.init: 124928,
heap.used: 83840,
heap: 1773568,
threads.peak: 23,
threads.daemon: 21,
threads: 23,
classes: 7269,
classes.loaded: 7272,
classes.unloaded: 3,
gc.ps_scavenge.count: 7,
gc.ps_scavenge.time: 379,
gc.ps_marksweep.count: 2,
gc.ps_marksweep.time: 283,
httpsessions.max: -1,
httpsessions.active: 0,
datasource.primary.active: 0,
datasource.primary.usage: 0,
counter.status.200.autoconfig: 1,
counter.status.200.dump.root: 1,
counter.status.200.env: 2,
counter.status.200.env.name:.-star-: 4,
counter.status.200.env.root: 3,
counter.status.200.health: 2,
counter.status.200.info: 1,
counter.status.200.mappings: 1,
counter.status.200.trace: 1,
counter.status.404.env.name:.-star-: 1,
gauge.response.autoconfig: 43,
gauge.response.dump.root: 89,
gauge.response.env: 21,
gauge.response.env.name:.-star-: 14,
gauge.response.env.root: 17,
gauge.response.health: 19,
gauge.response.info: 5,
gauge.response.mappings: 13,
gauge.response.trace: 52
}

此处我们可以看到基本的 memoryheapclass loadingprocessorthread pool 信息,连同一些HTTP指标。在该实例
中,可以使用 /metrics/{name:.*} 访问单个属性。

  • 系统内存总量(mem),单位:Kb
  • 空闲内存数量(mem.free),单位:Kb
  • 处理器数量(processors)
  • 系统正常运行时间(uptime),单位:毫秒
  • 应用上下文(就是一个应用实例)正常运行时间(instance.uptime),单位:毫秒
  • 系统平均负载(systemload.average)
  • 堆信息(heap,heap.committed,heap.init,heap.used),单位:Kb
  • 线程信息(threads,thread.peak,thead.daemon)
  • 类加载信息(classes,classes.loaded,classes.unloaded)
  • 垃圾收集信息(gc.xxx.count, gc.xxx.time)
  • 最大连接数(datasource.xxx.max)
  • 最小连接数(datasource.xxx.min)
  • 活动连接数(datasource.xxx.active)
  • 连接池的使用情况(datasource.xxx.usage)

dump

/dump执行一个线程转储,这是一个例子。

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[
{
threadName: "http-nio-7231-exec-10",
threadId: 32,
blockedTime: -1,
blockedCount: 0,
waitedTime: -1,
waitedCount: 3,
lockName: "java.util.concurrent.locks.AbstractQueuedSynchronizer$ConditionObject@7cf8ed03",
lockOwnerId: -1,
lockOwnerName: null,
inNative: false,
suspended: false,
threadState: "WAITING",
stackTrace: [
{
methodName: "park",
fileName: null,
lineNumber: -2,
className: "sun.misc.Unsafe",
nativeMethod: true
},

...
]

mappings

/mappings显示一个所有@RequestMapping路径的整理列表,一切尽在眼中。

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{
/webjars/**: {
bean: "resourceHandlerMapping"
},
/**: {
bean: "resourceHandlerMapping"
},
/**/favicon.ico: {
bean: "faviconHandlerMapping"
},
{[/mappings],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}: {
bean: "endpointHandlerMapping",
method: "public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()"
},
{[/info],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}: {
bean: "endpointHandlerMapping",
method: "public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()"
},
{[/env/{name:.*}],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}: {
bean: "endpointHandlerMapping",
method: "public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EnvironmentMvcEndpoint.value(java.lang.String)"
},
{[/env],methods=[GET],params=[],headers=[],consumes=[],produces=[],custom=[]}: {
bean: "endpointHandlerMapping",
method: "public java.lang.Object org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.mvc.EndpointMvcAdapter.invoke()"
},

...
}

autoconfig

autoconfig显示一个auto-configuration的报告,该报告展示所有auto-configuration候选者及它们被应用或未被应用的原因

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{
positiveMatches: {
AuditAutoConfiguration.AuditEventRepositoryConfiguration: [
{
condition: "OnBeanCondition",
message: "@ConditionalOnMissingBean (types: org.springframework.boot.actuate.audit.AuditEventRepository; SearchStrategy: all) found no beans"
}
],
EndpointAutoConfiguration#autoConfigurationAuditEndpoint: [
{
condition: "OnBeanCondition",
message: "@ConditionalOnBean (types: org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.ConditionEvaluationReport; SearchStrategy: all) found the following [autoConfigurationReport] @ConditionalOnMissingBean (types: org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.AutoConfigurationReportEndpoint; SearchStrategy: current) found no beans"
}
],
...
}

configprops

/configprops显示一个所有@ConfigurationProperties的整理列表.

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{
management.health.status.CONFIGURATION_PROPERTIES: {
prefix: "management.health.status",
properties: {
order: null
}
},
spring.datasource.CONFIGURATION_PROPERTIES: {
prefix: "spring.datasource",
properties: {
schema: null,
data: null,
xa: {
dataSourceClassName: null,
properties: { }
},
separator: ";",
url: "jdbc:sqlserver://192.168.x.x:xxxx;DatabaseName=xxxx;sendStringParametersAsUnicode=false",
platform: "all",
continueOnError: false,
jndiName: null,
sqlScriptEncoding: null,
password: "******",
driverClassName: "com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriver",
initialize: false,
username: "Monitor"
}
},
...
}

https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000004318360?_ea=568366
https://segmentfault.com/u/codecraft

更多的细节和探索,需要自己看看源码和spring boot的官方文档

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文章目录
  1. 1. health
  2. 2. trace
  3. 3. info
  4. 4. env
  5. 5. metrics
  6. 6. dump
  7. 7. mappings
  8. 8. autoconfig
  9. 9. configprops